Lots of reasons are already explained, fluctuation in voltage out of which:- Flickering– due to variation of input voltage sufficient in duration to allow visual observation of a change in electric light source intensity.
Notch – A switching disturbance of normal power voltage waveform of duration less than 0.5 cycles, which is initially of opposite polarity than the waveform or may be due to simple under voltage condition. These may be caused due to:
- Current and voltage distortion depending on the connected load that may vary widely in your house.
- Harmonics:Generated by Rectifiers/Electronic Ballasts, SMPS (Power Electronic Devices) etc.
- Due to switching transients in sudden heavy loads like AC, Pumps etc.
- or may be simply because of erroneous wiring/earthing or short-circuits.
- Cause may also be due to other heavy loads (to your neighboring areas) connected to your secondary distribution transformer which brings power to your home.
It fluctuates in all houses. The power company tries to hold it +- 5% of a nominal value but it really can be +- 10 % easy. I have seen a nominal 120 VAC fluctuate from 100 to 145 volts. If the power company has lines and equipment that are loaded toward the maximum capacity, fluctuations will be greater than if they are lightly loaded.
Transmission supply from utility generator, varying load usage from devices, i.e. Tv’s, refrigerator-cycle based for desired temperature, washing machines, dryers, lighting, Chargers for various equipment like computers, phones and battery packs for tools. Also, loose contact points of outlets and circuit breakers – make sure connections are tight – 18 in/lb for outlets. Utility companies typically charge per Kilowatt on a tiered program depending on the peak demand of the day. Higher rates at peak hours 8am-4pm tier 1, 6pm-12am tier 2, 12am-8am tier 3. Each with a multiplier base depending on tier.
There can be many reasons to it.
- The most common is overloading. If the area, where you live, draws more load current than specified by the authority, then there will be low voltage in your area. This due to the limited capacity of the distribution transformer used.
- It can also be caused due to use of various electronic equipments like, reactor, inverters, etc due to the harmonics created by them.
- Another reason can be due to use of heavy inductive loads frequently at the same time, like, ac, refrigerator, also motors. If you use heavy loads simultaneously, then there will be voltage dip.
- Or else, it can be caused due to damaged wiring, or earthing system being faulty etc. They dissipate unnecessary power, thereby causing voltage drop.
Voltage fluctuation could be cause for the following reasons
- If your house or your neighborhood draws excessive power, it will cause sudden drop in voltage level.
- Lightning may cause power surges or spikes.
- Clashing of lines. If power line are clashing because of strong wind, or trees, birds or some other accident may cause fluctuations.
- Poor regulation by utility or variation in generation capacity may also cause fluctuation.
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